Two forms of treatment are used to treat lymphatic malformations, sclerotherapy and surgery. In general, sclerotherapy is effective in treating macrocystic lesions but less effective for microcystic lesions. Substances used in sclerotherapy include OK432, doxycline, bleomycin and a number of alcohol derivatives. These agents cause an irritation of the wall lining the lymph cyst which then becomes inflamed and shuts down. In order for the agent to be effective, it must come into contact with the lining of the cyst. This is much more difficult when dealing with microcystic lesions.
Surgical resection of lymphatic malformations can be undertaken, and in treating macrocystic lesions, is curable. With respect to microcystic lesions, recurrence rates are usually high and multiple procedures are usually necessary. The experience of the surgeon is extremely important, especially when dealing with lesions that involve the facial nerve.