Vascular malformations are present at birth. They never proliferate and never involute. Instead, they increase in size steadily as the patient grows and they do so by an increase in the size of the vessels that make up the malformation. Vascular malformations are further classified according to the type of vessel that makes up the lesion.
The major types of vascular malformations are:
- Venular (port wine stains)
- Venous Lymphatic Capillary (Klippell Trenauney Syndrome: KTS)
- Arteriovenous capillary malformation (Parkes-Weber Syndrome)
- Laser treatment
- Surgical excision
- Sclerotherapy – a form of treatment involving injecting the blood vessels with a solution that clots off vessels or causes scarring of the vessels.
- Embolization – a form of treatment which involves the closing off of vessels via the artery or vein.
- Drug management
- Combination therapies- such as sclerotherapy/embolization followed by surgical excision.